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Porcini mushroom: places of growth, appearance, edible mushrooms, doppelganger

Morchella esculenta: description and photos

Morchella esculenta is one of those mushrooms listed in the Ukrainian Red Book. Lovers of “silent hunting” will surely collect the first spring harvest of these delicious mushrooms in order to preserve them for the winter.

Where does Morchella esculenta grow?

Morchella esculenta prefers deciduous forests in which trees such as ash, poplar and hornbeam dominate. It is possible to collect a good crop even on peat soils. The most important condition for mushroom growth is fertile soil, enriched with organic matter and microelements.

Morchella esculenta often grows in groups – about three mushroom bodies in a bunch. But there are also individual specimens.

Attention! The first harvest can be observed in spring – April and May.

  • The leg is wavy textured, thick, and can range in length from 4 cm to 17 cm. The diameter is about 6 cm. The color is yellowish-white and there are grooves on the entire surface, located lengthwise. It has no “fleshy” filling but is hollow and very fragile.
  • The seed material consists of spores collected in special cylindrical bags. There are 8 spurs with elliptical shape and smooth surface in each pocket. The color varies from light yellow to a more intense hue. The spore powder has a creamier color.

What do porcini mushrooms look like?

The mushroom got its name because of its appearance: its fruiting body has an impressive size and thickness. A porcini mushroom is easily recognizable by several characteristics:

Taste quality of the butter mushroom

It is not for nothing that lovers of the “silent hunt” go in search of butter mushrooms every spring. Because this species is one of the mushrooms that can be described as incredibly tasty. Their tender but juicy flesh remains so even after roasting and pre-cooking, and the mushroom aroma cannot be surpassed even by a large amount of spices.

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Benefit and harm to the body

In spruce boletus there are a number of useful substances and microelements, for which they are valued by lovers of silent hunting:

  • Carbohydrates;
  • Fats;
  • Proteins;
  • Disaccharides;
  • Fiber;
  • Monosaccharides;
  • Inorganic compounds;
  • Thiamine;
  • Riboflavin;
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid.

In addition, spruce boletus is characterized by low calorie content – less than 20 kcal per 100 g. For this reason, the mushroom is considered dietary and suitable for people suffering from obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Looking at the damage, one can only conclude that you can get poisoned with this type of mushroom. But the risk of such problems arises only with improper preparation of the mushrooms. To destroy the bile acid (which is hazardous to health and is found in all types of morels), one only needs to boil the harvested mushroom crop for 15 minutes and rinse thoroughly under running water. Then the material can be used to prepare various dishes.

Fake doubles of boletus

It is extremely difficult to confuse a porcini mushroom with another type of mushroom. The only option is to collect boletus, but they are edible mushrooms, so they do not pose a threat to life and health.

The other species have a completely different appearance. This is particularly evident in the shape of the hat and the size of the stems.

Rules for collecting porcini mushrooms

The first harvest can already be observed in April and May. In Crimea, this type of mushrooms grows in March after the 15th day. As a rule, porcini mushrooms stop growing in the fall. However, in recent years, due to climate change, there has been a re-harvest in southern regions of Russia, which takes place in September.

Despite this, experienced mushroom pickers know that it is best to collect the first harvest. All the necessary vitamins and microelements of this culture are contained in this crop.

As for the place of “silent hunting”, it is best to cut the fruiting bodies far from busy places, roads and chemical plants. All these factors are negative, since the fungus can accumulate in its flesh harmful substances and heavy metal salts contained in the soil and air.

Collection of the thick mushroom is done by pulling the foot out of the ground or by cutting the mushroom.

The use of thick boules

Boletes are conditionally edible mushrooms. Many cooks use them dried and add them to various dishes throughout the winter. If this option is preferred, important details should be considered when preparing dried mushrooms:

  1. The fruit bodies need to be cleaned of garbage and dirt.
  2. Let them wilt a little on a flat dry surface.
  3. Cut them into pieces for convenience (specimens can also be left whole).
  4. Dry them in a convenient way (oven, free air, microwave, etc.).
  5. The mushrooms can only be consumed after 40 days, after they have completely dried.

Besides drying, the porcini mushrooms can be pre-cooked and then used for pickling, marinating, roasting, soup-making and other dishes.

Important! Since ancient times, the porcini mushroom has been considered a delicate dish. Therefore, there are many unique recipes based on it.

This culture is also used in medicine:

  1. An infusion from the hats is used as an external remedy for diseases such as rheumatism, arthrosis and arthritis.
  2. A decoction of the fruit body is taken internally for digestive problems.
  3. Drops are made from the decoction of the hats and are used for myopia, hyperopia, strengthening of the eye muscles and cataracts.

Danger! It is not recommended to make drops yourself. It is therefore best to look for a drug that contains this fungus.

The culture undoubtedly has benefits for the entire body. For this reason, dieticians often use porcini mushrooms to create diets for people who need weight correction and metabolic stabilization.

The conclusion

The curly hen is a delicious and healthy mushroom that is difficult to confuse with poisonous representatives, so even a novice can easily recognize it as a “silent hunter”.

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